2018年日本文化人類学会@弘前市

【パネル】

企業・実務のエスノグラフィ:エスノグラフィの展開(2)

要旨はこちらから。

【発表】

人類学的視野から見る日系企業のグローバル化:実務界への提言

要旨はこちらから。

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GCI 2018 @ Hangzhou, China

Identity politics, Cosmopolitanism and Business:

Journey of a Japanese Company in Hong Kong

Abstract

The major aim of the presentation is to analyze the discourse of identity politics and cosmopolitan values in the process of translating and reinterpreting Japaneseness in Hong Kong. It is based on a long-term participant observation at a Japanese multinational retailer, here called it Ichi in Hong Kong. Numerous scholars have positively evaluated the influence of Japanese companies on Hong Kong consumers and their behaviors. In comparison to these studies, groups of scholars criticized Japanese management system to be overtly traditional and to be left behind the global standards. However, few have explored how these two different perceptions on Japan or Japaneseness could exist without conflicting with each other. This presentation examines, specifically, how local employees constructed these two attitudes in a context of postcolonial Hong Kong. Ichi markets itself as a global company while the management system was backward which largely echoes with previous management literatures. Local employees, who interpret Japanese cultures as advanced and unique before joining Ichi, were disappointed at the Japanese management system yet reconfirmed their passive perception were not wrong. These two feelings surprisingly did not conflict with each other nor reduced their positive feelings towards Japan because it resemblances to the local identity, which was mixed by Western ideology and Chineseness, and also the cosmopolitan values allow them to choose what is suitable to the occasion. This presentation implies that the translation or reinterpretation process of one culture to another is not a singular phenomenon, but a plural and dynamic process, and it has to be understood in relation to the formation of the local Hong Kong identity and the influence of Japanese culture in Hong Kong.

Keywords: identity, politics, cosmopolitanism, business, postcolonial

Sixth International Conference on Applications of Anthropology in Business @ Yinchuan, China

Identity Building:

Rites and Symbol in Corporate Management

This presentation aims to anthropologically examine the ways in which a corporate entity’s rites and symbols in management help construct a unique corporate identity, and the ways in which community members can cultivate a strong sense of belonging. Numerous management scientists believed that corporate identity was a fixed concept that could be measured scientifically. This perspective overlooks its fluidity and the impacts of routines and symbolic figures on identity building. This study will use the case of a Japanese ramen shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), to examine one of the unique aspects of Japanese management, which is to use daily routines and symbols to enhance collectivism. This paper uses the anthropological notion of identity building to offer a new perspective on management studies and to deepen the understanding of management in the Japanese context.

Keywords: identity, rites, symbol, management, Japan

 

Presented at AJJ Spring Meeting 2018 April

Eat, Share and Serve:

Founder Philosophy and Community Building in Business

This presentation aims to examine how the founder philosophy influences the formation of a community in the workplace and to explore its possible implications. Few studies on business examined carefully how locally formed philosophy could be accepted and spread by the global audience without loosing its authenticity. This presentation is based on a fieldwork at a Japanese ramen shop, here called it Sakura in Cambridge (U.S.) in 2017, and aims to show how the founder philosophy that was represented along with the characteristic of Japaneseness, such as ramen and shop atmosphere, attract people across cultures to join the Sakura community. Founder philosophy states that everyone is entitled to dream, to share them and expected to eventually give back to society claiming that the shop was just a platform for people to realize their dreams rather than simply a ramen shop. Transforming founder philosophy to ideology was facilitated and controlled by series of informal rules, and members at Sakura seemed to have shared this philosophy voluntarily and believed they can dream and realize them only by joining Sakura community. This case shows that simple and positive message of the philosophy, its benefits to the members’ desires and creation of image as non-profit organization attracted people from different cultural backgrounds to create a community strongly bounded by founder ideology. It also shows how a company creates and recreates an eco system where members would voluntarily spread this spirit to outsiders to include more members as well as customers.

Keywords: community, business, philosophy, ideology, Japan

 

Presentation at 2017 AJJ Fall

Language, Ideology, and Cross-cultural management: 

Cases of Japanese managers in Hong Kong and the United States

 

Abstract

With the increasing presence of Japanese companies overseas, many of them nowadays invest a great deal in English education, aiming to improve their English language abilities. However, is English the main and only challenge that Japanese companies face when managing local employees? Do people with better English abilities have a stronger advantage when attempting to achieve their goals than those who do not? This presentation aims to answer these questions based on fieldwork conducted in two Japanese companies, an apparel retailer in Hong Kong and a ramen chain in the United States. Despite their differences, the top managements in both companies believe in the potential of Japanese culture and aim to spread Japan-centered ideology across cultures through their products and management that is considered to be superior to that in other companies. Stories from these two companies show that one of the major factors that determine their relationship with local employees is not the language ability, but rather, the extent to which they attempt to impose Japan-centered ideology on the locals or, in another words, the extent to which they expect the local employees to “Japanize” their behaviors. This implies that language is a tool to express deeply rooted ideas, such as how employees interpret Japan-centered ideology and take action based on it. The findings of this study suggest that companies should invest more in educating employees to improve their ways of thinking and highlights the necessity of respecting and learning from local people rather than simply focusing on language education.

Digital Humanities

2016年 筑波大学人文社会系 研究発信月間プログラム

デジタル・ヒューマニティーズ 講演会&ワークショップ

Digital Humanities Lecture & Workshop

Lecture

Classical Chinese Literature in a Digital Age

December 15, 2017   13:00-14:30 @3B312

Dr. Donald Sturgeon (Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University)

Donald Sturgeon is Postdoctoral Fellow in Chinese Digital Humanities and Ssturgeon-2016aocial Sciences at the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University. His research interests include issues of language, mind and knowledge in classical Chinese thought, and the application of digital methods to the study of pre-modern Chinese language and literature. He is the founder and the owner of the Chinese Text Project (http://ctext.org), an online digital library of pre-modern Chinese which is now the largest such library in the world and attracts tens of thousands of visitors and hundreds of crowd-sourced contributions every day.

WORKSHOP

2016年12月16日(金)13:00-16:30 (3B312 プレゼンテーションルーム)

宇陀則彦 「図書館情報学アーカイブズの概要」

和氣愛仁 アノテーション付与型画像データベースプラットフォームWDBの紹介

高橋洋成 楔形文字粘土板における「空白」のマークアップ

永崎研宣 An Ecosystem for Digital Buddhist Studies

Donald Sturgeon  Optical Character Recognition for pre-Modern Chinese Texts

Download poster here.

ポスターは、こちらです。

2017年日中社会学会における発表

 文化接触による民族的アイデンティティの変容:

海外における日系企業と中国系企業で働く従業員による意識を中心に

 本発表では、Barth (1998) の民族境界論を理論的枠組みとし、企業文化と現地文化の接触を通じて、従業員が如何に内部者と外部者を区別し、民族的アイデンティティを変容させているのか分析する。事例として、香港における日系企業(A社)と日本における中国系企業(B社、C社)を取り上げ、現地調査得たデータにもとづいて考察する。日系、中国系とは、企業の創始者がそれぞれ日本、中国本土出身であることを指す。

先行研究では、海外における日系企業の多くが「自民族中心(ethno-centric)」的経営を行っていると述べられているが、従業員の数や権利など、「表面的」な現象にもとづいた分析が多く、包括的に文化の接触や経営への影響を分析できていない。一方、中国に関して言えば、起業家や人的ネットワークに関する研究は多いが、企業組織内における民族アイデンティティの構築を研究しているのは限られている。

本発表では、まず、香港における日系企業(A社)について分析する。A社は、海外での成功体験から、「日本」はブランド価値が強いと考え、香港では自国で成功した制度を取り入れていた。一方で、現地従業員はA社が進出する以前から、日本ブランドを高く評価し、中には憧れの感情を抱いている人々もいた。その結果、A社では、「日本性」が境界線を構築する主な指標となっていた。このように、現地の好意的な対日感情が企業文化と接触した結果、A社では、日本的な制度や日本人を「優越」的であると考えるようになり、現地の意見を過小評価するようになった。この考えは、より企業の「日本化」を助長しているが、その一方、現地人の帰属意識を低下させることにもなった。

次に、日本における中国系会社(B社とC社)を考察する。現地調査の結果、どちらの会社においても、「信頼」を主な指標として中国人と日本人を区別していることが分かった。多くの中国人管理職は、従業員の団結心や労働意識などに注目し、日本人が中国人より「優れている」と判断していた。それは、日本が「優勢」であるという考えを助長し、中国人の民族アイデンティの複雑さ(大国や経済の上で誇りはあるが、団結心や労働意識に関しては劣等感も感じている)を表している。その背景には、日本において中国ブランドや中国人への信頼性が低いということだけではなく、創始者の中国人や多くの中国人管理職が長年日本に滞在し、自らも日本が優勢であるという考えを助長しているからだろう。

本発表では、民族的アイデンティティの構築プロセスは、企業、そして現地の人々が如何に原産国の民族性を考えているのか、によって影響されていることがわかった。また、異なる民族的アイデンティティが経営に諸刃の剣的な役割を果たしている事も考察した。本発表で言及した研究の一部は現在進行中であり、今後より広範囲の現地調査と一層の考察が求められている。

参考文献:

Barth, Fredrik. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Waveland Press, 1998.